The Race to Scale Ethereum With zkEVM Rollups

Key Takeaways

  • zkSync, StarkNet, Polygon zkEVM, and Scroll are a few of the high ZK-Rollup initiatives constructing with EVM-compatibility in thoughts.
  • Every challenge is tackling the questions of throughput, cryptographic proofs, and ranges of EVM-compatibility in its personal manner.
  • ZK-Rollups are anticipated to change into one in every of Ethereum’s most necessary scaling weapons through the years forward.

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As Ethereum units its sights on mass adoption, ZK-Rollup know-how has emerged as a powerful contender for scaling the blockchain, decreasing transaction prices, and bettering throughput. Crypto Briefing breaks down four main ZK-Rollups appropriate with the Ethereum Digital Machine which can be presently below growth, every of which guarantees numerous benefits inside the Ethereum ecosystem.

Tackling Ethereum’s Transaction Charges

Ethereum is going through scaling challenges.

Maybe the one largest barrier to widespread Ethereum adoption is the excessive price of utilizing the community, which has change into an existential concern for the blockchain. The rise of DeFi protocols and NFTs has elevated the demand for block area on Ethereum. Most transactions price a couple of cents in 2019, however throughout the peak of the 2021 bull run, actions like minting NFTs on the blockchain would commonly are available at tons of of {dollars}. In consequence, many retail market contributors discovered they had been priced out of the community and turned to different networks like Solana, Avalanche, or Binance Sensible Chain. Right this moment, regardless of a downturn in community exercise as a result of market circumstances, easy transactions similar to ETH transfers price between $2 and $3, nicely above Ethereum creator Vitalik Buterin’s very best purpose of lower than $0.05 per transaction

Rollups provide a option to relieve congestion on the Ethereum blockchain. That’s as a result of they outsource information off-chain, course of it, and ship transactions again to Ethereum reasonably than counting on the bottom chain to course of every transaction’s computational information. With rollups, Ethereum solely has to confirm the proofs themselves and never the whole lot of the info, which frees up block area. Rollups additionally permit transactions to be bundled collectively, which permits customers to separate fuel charges.

Zero-Data Rollups, also called ZK-Rollups, use cryptographic proofs known as ZK-SNARKS (“zero information succinct arguments of information”) to indicate to Ethereum mainnet {that a} transaction was processed. These zero-knowledge proofs may be verified rapidly regardless that the underlying information would take a very long time to research. 

Some ZK-Rollup initiatives presently below growth have introduced their intention to be appropriate with the Ethereum Digital Machine, providing Ethereum builders a option to import their good contracts to the rollup with out modifying them. However as Buterin explained in a current weblog submit, not all zkEVM initiatives are structured the identical manner: some optimize for full EVM composability, and others for fast throughput.


Developed by Matter Labs, zkSync is among the most anticipated zkEVM initiatives. Boasting 2,000 transactions per second, a 10-minute processing time between the rollup and Ethereum mainnet, and no higher certain restrict to the worth the rollup can securely deal with, zkSync is a number one challenge within the area of zkEVMs.

Regardless of its advertising, zkSync isn’t technically appropriate with the EVM, however reasonably with Solidity and Vyper, two coding languages used on Ethereum. The distinction, whereas small for customers, is necessary for builders: amongst different issues, contract addresses could differ, handwritten EVM code will not be supported, and debugging infrastructure could not essentially be carried over. 

The rollup is presently dwell on Ethereum’s testnet. The mainnet launch is predicted to occur in three steps: “Child Alpha” in November, throughout which the system might be put by real-money stress assessments with no exterior initiatives concerned; the Honest Launch, which is able to welcome all Ethereum ecosystem initiatives however maintain consumer entry restricted; and the Full Alpha, anticipated earlier than the 12 months’s finish. A zkSync token is predicted, although particulars haven’t but been introduced.


StarkWare’s StarkNet is one other main contender within the zkEVM area. Whereas StarkNet makes use of Cairo as its native coding language, a group is creating a coding translator known as Cairo transpiler, that means that, identical to zkSync, the rollup will finally be Solidity-compatible reasonably than EVM-compatible.

But the similarities finish there. StarkNet makes use of a special form of cryptographic proof known as STARKs (“scalable clear arguments of information”). ZK-STARKs are theoretically safer than ZK-SNARKs however take longer to confirm, take up extra block area, and require extra fuel. StarkWare is the principle driving drive behind STARK-based know-how growth.

A permissioned model of StarkNet went dwell on Ethereum mainnet in February 2022. The StarkWare group additionally introduced just lately that StarkNet could have its personal governance and utility token. Whereas there are not any official figures on StarkNet’s anticipated throughput at full capability, StarkWare says the rollup might scale back fuel charges on Ethereum by an element of 100 to 200. 

Polygon zkEVM

Polygon is an Ethereum scaling resolution with a versatile framework that enables builders to construct and join Layer 2 infrastructure similar to Optimistic Rollups and ZK-Rollups to the Ethereum community. In August 2021, Polygon acquired the ZK-Rollup challenge Hermez Community for $250 million; the agency introduced a 12 months later that it was working by itself ZK-Rollup, Polygon Hermez, which might work alongside its Proof-of-Stake Matic chain. Final month, Polygon introduced that Polygon Hermez had rebranded to Polygon zkEVM and would head to mainnet in early 2023. 

Polygon claims that its zkEVM will have the ability to deal with as much as 2,000 transactions per second and scale back transaction prices by 90%. The challenge’s code has been made open-source; a public testnet is predicted quickly.

Supply: Polygon

Opposite to zkSync or StarkNet, Polygon’s ZK-Rollup doesn’t intend to restrict itself by being appropriate solely with Ethereum coding languages, however with the EVM itself. Polygon zkEVM replicates the EVM reasonably than mirroring it. This means that builders should still have to adapt code and tooling frameworks to the rollup, although to a lesser extent than on zkSync and StarkNet. 

Alongside its ZK-EVM challenge, Polygon can be creating an Optimistic Rollup (Polygon Dusk), a STARK-based ZK-Rollup (Polygon Miden), and a speed-optimized EVM-compatible ZK-Rollup known as Polygon Zero. 


The ZK-Rollup aiming for the most effective integration with the EVM is Scroll. A comparatively new challenge, Scroll may be thought-about actually EVM-equivalent; the one significant distinction between the 2 is the runtime atmosphere, that means the subsystem wherein contracts are executed. Nonetheless, the excessive composability comes on the value of a big computational overhead, which signifies Scroll’s efficiency might be weaker than that of zkSync, StarkNet, and Polygon. 

The Scroll group has but to launch particulars in regards to the challenge, however on July 18, it called on builders to register to strive the Scroll testnet, which is predicted in Q3 2022. The Scroll group is creating the challenge in collaboration with the Ethereum Basis. The web site claims that safety, transparency, and EVM-equivalence are its high priorities.

Extra ZK-Rollups

Different teams researching ZK-Rollups embrace the Ethereum Basis’s Privateness and Scaling Explorations group and an as-of-yet unnamed initiative affiliated with ConsenSys. Although analysis could contribute to present initiatives and never essentially result in new ones, the current breakthroughs in zero-knowledge proof know-how could give rise to a number of ZK-Rollups within the Ethereum ecosystem. Although the Ethereum community nonetheless has a protracted highway forward in relation to scaling, the rise of recent zkEVM initiatives ought to profit builders and customers alike as they’re introduced with extra options catering to totally different use circumstances. 

Disclosure: On the time of writing, the writer of this piece owned ETH and a number of other different cryptocurrencies. 

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